In ancient Celtic social organisation descent was traced through the mother where women “…were highly honoured, female symbolism formed the most sacred images in the religious cosmos, and the relationship with the motherhood was the central element of the social fabric, the society was held together by common allegiance to the customs of the tribe loosely organised around the traditions of goddess” (Condren, 1989).
Celtic religion was polytheistic, believing in many deities, both gods and goddesses, some of which were venerated only in a small, local area, but others whose worship had a wider geographical distribution. The names of over two hundred of these deities have survived to us today, although it is likely that many of these names were different titles or epithets used for the same deity. (Cunliffe, Barry(1997). The Ancient Celts. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 187)
Historically the Celts were a society of warriors using war to gain agricultural land, cattle and other valuable resources. They spread their goddess worshipping practices across the areas they conquered.
On the eve of battles the Druids (the Celtic Priests) would conduct lavish ceremonies.
Offerings were made to the war goddesses and observations and divination were used to predict the outcome of the battle. After a successful war, select Celtic warriors took part in a ceremony to wed them to the goddess of the land before they could assume dominion over the place and its peoples.
Overtime the worship of the Celtic Goddesses was eroded by the Romans and the Catholic Church. They did not disappear completely but were immortalised in the myths and legends. Examples of this include the stories of Cerridwen and Arianrhod which appear in a collection of Welsh myths known as the Mabinogion. A few of the goddesses were adopted by the Romans like Epona the Celtic horse Goddess others like Brigid were renamed as Catholic Saints.
Recently with the revival of the Druid and Pagan movements the popularity and interest in the Celtic Goddesses has risen.
If we travel back the the ancient origins of human civilizations, we find evidence that female deities were worshipped far and wide for millennia. Long before the main world religions were established, during the earliest periods of human development, many belief systems venerated a supreme female creator .
In her ground-breaking 1976 book, When God Was a Woman, historian Merlin Stone traces ancient worship of the Goddess back to the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages. In the Near and Middle East, she writes, we can find evidence that the “development of the religion of the female deity in this area was intertwined with the earliest beginnings of religion so far discovered anywhere on earth.” This Goddess was unquestionably the supreme deity to rule them all; “creator and law-maker of the universe, prophetess, provider of human destinies, inventor, healer, hunter and valiant leader in battle.”
During this period in the ancient world, worship of female deities was widespread and immensely powerful. But it was with the advent of agriculture after the Paleolothic age that Goddess worship really started to take off. Statuettes from that period representing the Mother Goddess have cropped up in Canaan (now Palestine/Israel) and Anatolia (now Turkey), and Goddess figurines have appeared all over the Neolithic communities of Egypt dating back to 4000 BC. “The deifications of the Goddess in the ancient world were variations on a theme,” writes Lynn Rogers in "Edgar Cayce and the Eternal Feminine", with representations of a supreme female Creator in Sumer, Egypt, Crete, Greece, Ethiopia, Libya, India, Elam, Babylon, Anatolia, Canaan, Ireland, Mesopotamia, and even ancient Judah and Israel. But there could be no doubt that She was, as mythologist Robert Graves described it, “immortal, changeless, omnipotent.”
In her book , Mother God, Sylvia Browne offers a detailed history of the female principle that flourished after the Paleolithic period. The Inuit people had Sedna, the goddess of the sea and mother of the ocean, while the Assyrian and Babylonian cultures worshipped Ishtar, the goddess of love and war. In Aztec culture, Teleoinan was considered the Mother of the Gods. According to the ancient Egyptians, Isis was the goddess of children and magic, while in ancient Sumer, the primary goddess was Inanna, the goddess of love and war. Meanwhile, the ancient Phoenicians actually had two female goddesses of equal status: Anat, the fertility goddess, and Astarte, the Mother goddess considered to be the planet Venus. Creators of the universe, bearers of children, providers of culture, valiant warriors, and wise counsellors, these goddesses were anything but an afterthought.
When women rise to prominence, misogyny often ensues, and by 1500 BC, Goddess-worshipping civilizations had mostly fallen from grace. Scholarship differs in its analysis of why, but many experts assert that the dominant masculine religions and patrilineal customs brought to Europe by invading Indo-Europeans seriously upset the state of play. The suppression that followed makes for bleak reading. “At the dawn of Western civilization,” writes Rogers, “25,000 years of ‘her-story’ of the Goddess’ bountiful creativity were obliterated.” Creation myths were rewritten, symbols of Goddess worship were denigrated, and “the ancient belief in the Goddess as the Ground of Being, The Universe from which The All emerged, was overturned.”
As Judaism, Christianity, and Islam evolved in the Middle East and Europe, the monotheistic religions began to cement the worship of a new, exclusively male order: God, King, Priest, and Father. These new theologies placed the goddess in a subordinate status, with a man as her dominant husband, or even as her murderer. In her book, Stone writes at length about the erasure of female deities, arguing that at that time Goddess worship became the victim of “centuries of continual persecution and suppression by the advocates of the newer religions which held male deities as supreme.” Worse yet, this major about-turn in religion meant the status of women around the world declined, too.
Buddhism, too, celebrates the feminine principle by way of the Bodhisattva Guan Yin, whose name means “the one who hears and sees the cries of the world.” With beauty, grace, and boundless compassion for the suffering of humanity, it has been said that Yin’s “greatest significance is as the outpourings or embodiment of the divine feminine.”
As the major world religions evolved over thousands of years, however, the supreme female deity increasingly faded from view. While, around 27 BC, the first emperor of Rome gave the goddess Cybele the title of Supreme Mother of Rome, by 500 AD, attitudes toward female Gods couldn’t have been more different. The last Goddess temples in Rome and Byzantium were closed by the Christian emperors, and the so-called polytheistic “pagan” religions were driven out of worship, taking the female deities with them.
Today, instead of a history of the ancient female religions that were celebrated for thousands of years, we are most familiar with the creation story of Adam and Eve and their expulsion from Eden courtesy of Eve, making her, you know, responsible for the downfall of mankind from Paradise. As for the supreme female deity? “The Old Testament does not even have a word for ‘Goddess,’” writes Stone. “In the Bible, the Goddess is referred to as Elohim, in the masculine gender, to be translated as God. But the Koran of the Mohammedans was quite clear. In it we read: ‘Allah will not tolerate idolatry...the pagans pray to females.’”
Some might say the disappearance of the Goddess occurred naturally with the march of modern civilization. But, as many historians and theologians have pointed out, it’s likely no coincidence that the patriarchal cultures that conquered earlier indigenous populations are fundamentally intertwined with the downfall of the Goddess, and the reframing of this revered form of worship as cultic, lewd, and primitive.